We are independent & ad-supported. We may earn a commission for purchases made through our links.
Advertiser Disclosure
Our website is an independent, advertising-supported platform. We provide our content free of charge to our readers, and to keep it that way, we rely on revenue generated through advertisements and affiliate partnerships. This means that when you click on certain links on our site and make a purchase, we may earn a commission. Learn more.
How We Make Money
We sustain our operations through affiliate commissions and advertising. If you click on an affiliate link and make a purchase, we may receive a commission from the merchant at no additional cost to you. We also display advertisements on our website, which help generate revenue to support our work and keep our content free for readers. Our editorial team operates independently of our advertising and affiliate partnerships to ensure that our content remains unbiased and focused on providing you with the best information and recommendations based on thorough research and honest evaluations. To remain transparent, we’ve provided a list of our current affiliate partners here.

What are Some Species Endemic to Indonesia?

Michael Anissimov
Updated Jun 04, 2024
Our promise to you
All Things Nature is dedicated to creating trustworthy, high-quality content that always prioritizes transparency, integrity, and inclusivity above all else. Our ensure that our content creation and review process includes rigorous fact-checking, evidence-based, and continual updates to ensure accuracy and reliability.

Our Promise to you

Founded in 2002, our company has been a trusted resource for readers seeking informative and engaging content. Our dedication to quality remains unwavering—and will never change. We follow a strict editorial policy, ensuring that our content is authored by highly qualified professionals and edited by subject matter experts. This guarantees that everything we publish is objective, accurate, and trustworthy.

Over the years, we've refined our approach to cover a wide range of topics, providing readers with reliable and practical advice to enhance their knowledge and skills. That's why millions of readers turn to us each year. Join us in celebrating the joy of learning, guided by standards you can trust.

Editorial Standards

At All Things Nature, we are committed to creating content that you can trust. Our editorial process is designed to ensure that every piece of content we publish is accurate, reliable, and informative.

Our team of experienced writers and editors follows a strict set of guidelines to ensure the highest quality content. We conduct thorough research, fact-check all information, and rely on credible sources to back up our claims. Our content is reviewed by subject-matter experts to ensure accuracy and clarity.

We believe in transparency and maintain editorial independence from our advertisers. Our team does not receive direct compensation from advertisers, allowing us to create unbiased content that prioritizes your interests.

There are many species endemic to Indonesia, a tropic biodiversity hot spot. Indonesia is a vast region and country to the north of Australia and southeast of Southeast Asia. It is consists of 17,508 islands arranged into archipelagos, the largest being New Guinea, Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Flores, and Timor. New Guinea, Borneo, and Sumatra are the world's second, third, and sixth largest islands respectively, collectively encompassing more than 800,000 square miles. The isolation of Indonesia's numerous islands contributes to their biodiversity, with different species diversifying on each island and being isolated from continental predators.

There are two primary zoogeographical zones in Indonesia: Sundaland in the west and Wallacea in the east. These are divided by the Wallace Line, an imaginary line that runs between Borneo and Sulawesi. West of the line are found mostly Asian-related species, to the east, Australian species. In all, about half of Indonesia is uninhabited, mostly occupied by rainforest.

In Sundaland, there are 381 native mammal species, with 173 being endemic. During past Ice Ages, the sea level in the area was low enough that animals could travel from the Asian mainland to the islands. Thus, tiger, rhino, elephant, and leopard can be found here. The most famous species endemic to Indonesia, the orangutan, can be found on Borneo and Sumatra, where they make up two separate species. These orange great apes are highly intelligent tool users, but they are endangered by human activity and habitat destruction. The beautiful Sumatran Tiger, the smallest tiger species, can be found ion spots over the island, where it numbers only 500 individuals.

Two other species endemic to Indonesia are the Sumatran and Javan rhinoceros, two of the rarest and most endangered large mammal species in the world. They have long been hunted for their horns, which have value in Chinese medicine. There are only about 300 Sumatran rhinos and just 60 Javan rhinos. Substantial conservation effort will be needed to ensure that these species recover their populations. The process could take centuries.

Other species endemic to Indonesia are found in Wallacea, the region east of the Wallace Line. Wallacea has 126 endemic species, including seven species of macaque monkey, five species of tarsier, the anoa, a rare subgenus of buffalo, and the babirusa, a pig-like animal with two sets of curving horns. On the island of New Guinea are species endemic to Indonesia, such as the bizarre Goodfellow's Tree-kangaroo, numerous species of rodents, some a foot long, the beautiful Papuan Hornbill, and the famous Komodo Dragon, the largest living lizard. As the only native placental mammals are bats and mice, other species, such as the Komodo Dragon, have adopted the niches which would have otherwise been adopted by large placentals.

All Things Nature is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Michael Anissimov
By Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov is a dedicated All Things Nature contributor and brings his expertise in paleontology, physics, biology, astronomy, chemistry, and futurism to his articles. An avid blogger, Michael is deeply passionate about stem cell research, regenerative medicine, and life extension therapies. His professional experience includes work with the Methuselah Foundation, Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence, and Lifeboat Foundation, further showcasing his commitment to scientific advancement.
Discussion Comments
Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov is a dedicated All Things Nature contributor and brings his expertise in paleontology, physics,...
Learn more
All Things Nature, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.

All Things Nature, in your inbox

Our latest articles, guides, and more, delivered daily.