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What Is Flora and Fauna?

J. Beam
J. Beam

Flora and fauna refer to plant and wildlife, respectively. The term is often used to refer to the indigenous plant and wildlife of a geographical region. Both are collective terms, referring to groups of plant or wildlife specific to a region or a time period. For example, the flora and fauna of a warm region may consist of tropical to warm-temperate vegetation and exotic species of birds.

By definition, flora is a word of Latin origin referring to Flora, the goddess of flowers. The term can refer to a group of plants or to bacteria. Flora is the root of the word floral, which means pertaining to flowers. Fauna can refer to the animal life or classification of animals of a certain region, time period, or environment. The term is also of Latin origin, and in Roman mythology, Fauna was the sister of Faunus, a good spirit of the forest and plains.

Forests often exhibit a broad diversity of flora and fauna.
Forests often exhibit a broad diversity of flora and fauna.

The flora and fauna of any given region are usually explained in biological terms to include the genus and species of plant and animal life, their preferred growing or breeding habits, and their connection to one another in the environment as well. In addition to geographical groupings, environment also helps further their classification. For example, aquatic flora and fauna of a region refers to the plant and animal life found in the waters in or surrounding a geographic region.

Terrariums are commonly used to hold flora that thrives in dry habitats.
Terrariums are commonly used to hold flora that thrives in dry habitats.

Biologists and environmentalists study the plants and animals of a region for a number of reasons. Preservation and conservation are main reasons why they are important to researchers, as their ability to teach scientists new things about biology. Several organizations, including Fauna and Flora International (FFI), work together to use their research and findings to further policy on conservation and preservation as well as biodiversity.

What’s in a Name: Flora and Fauna

Fauna may refer to the wildlife of a certain environment.
Fauna may refer to the wildlife of a certain environment.

Both flora and fauna are words that have roots in Latin. Flora comes from earlier Latin root words for flower, flor or flos. Flora later refers to the goddess of flowers in Latin. Fauna is also a later Latin translation, coming from the name of a goddess; the sister of Faunus is Fauna, the rural goddess. When you talk about the flora and the fauna of a place, you are talking about the plants and animals that live there.

The flora and fauna of an area aren’t just discussed in blanket old Latin terms, however. Scientists break their classifications down even further into genus and species. They record details about their wildlife by studying their reproductive habits, diets, young rearing, and relationships in the wild. Plantlife is very similar. Scientists record their reproductive methods, native regions, hardiness zones, and potential threats to growing environments.

In earlier times, scientists used the term flora to describe the handbooks and manuals they used to record a region's wildlife and plant life.


Remember that flora refers to the plant life of a region. Each region has a bounty of plant life. As a result, scientists divided flora into subsections to make classification easier and more accessible. The three unique classifications are native flora, horticultural flora, and weed flora.

Native Flora

Native flora is the vegetation or plantlife in a region that is indigenous to that area. Native plants grow better with less manipulation than plants that have been brought from elsewhere or translated because the conditions are suitable for their cultivation. Watering responsibilities are less frequent, as is the need for fertilizer as the necessary nutrients are found in the native soil.

Horticultural Flora

Horticultural flora refers to plants that are cultivated explicitly by humans for consumption or production. Horticultural flora can be agricultural plants or horticultural cultivars used for landscaping. Some examples of horticultural flora are:

  • Ornamental trees, flowers, and grasses
  • Vegetables
  • Fruits
  • Flowers
  • Lawn grasses
  • Wheat
  • Rice

Weed Flora

Initially, weed flora used to refer to plants that human beings found to be unpleasant and removed from the region in which they lived. The term “weeding” is synonymous with weed flora cultivars. However, as ecosystems become more and more advanced and the knowledge of flora deepened, even the most staunch weeders realize that there are no band plants or “weeds,” just dangerous invasive species.

Invasive Species: Flora or Fauna

Invasive species can come in the form of both flora and fauna. Invasive species refer to plant or animal life that is non-native to the ecosystem of a particular area. Why does this identification matter? The presence of non-native species often causes harm to the health of a site. Invasive species take the resources for themselves, interrupt the delicate balance of the ecosystem, and harm others in the process. Humans can be invasive species, too.

Invasive species are spread by people, accidents, and the natural movement of plants and animals. Invasive species must be returned to their primary origin or destroyed to maintain the health of an ecosystem. If not, there is a real danger of extinction, destruction, and forever changed habitats.


Fauna refers to all of the wildlife in a particular region. Often scientists refer to the past and present fauna of an area when referring to nature. Fauna requires a similar subcategory system to classify wildlife in a specific place at a particular time in history. There are many subcategories of fauna, though the most common are as follows.


Megafauna refers to the animals or wildlife that is so big they can be seen with the naked eye from quite a far distance away. An example of megafauna from this period would be an elephant. An example of megafauna from the past would be a ground sloth.


An interestingly specific category of macrofauna is smaller than an earthworm but one centimeter or more long. An example of macrofauna is a snail.


Microfauna is microscopic animals that cannot be seen with the naked eye. You guessed it; you need a microscope to see these teeny weeny creatures native to a specific area. An example of living microfauna is rotifers that live in water bacteria.


Infauna is the animals that live in the sediment layers of bodies of water. Clams are an example of a notable infauna.


Cryofauna can live in subzero temperatures or on ice without being harmed or disrupting homeostasis. Some examples of cryofauna are seals, penguins, and orcas.

Frequently Asked Questions

What exactly are flora and fauna?

Flora refers to the plant life that is present in a particular region or time, typically the naturally occurring or indigenous plants. Fauna, on the other hand, encompasses all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The terms are often used to describe the variety of species within specific ecosystems or on the planet as a whole.

Why are flora and fauna important to ecosystems?

Flora and fauna are crucial to ecosystems as they form a complex web of life where each species plays a role in maintaining ecological balance. Plants (flora) produce oxygen and provide food and habitat for animals (fauna). In turn, animals contribute to pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient cycling, which supports plant life and overall ecosystem health.

How do human activities impact flora and fauna?

Human activities have significant impacts on flora and fauna, often leading to habitat destruction, pollution, and climate change. According to the World Wildlife Fund, habitat loss is the greatest threat to species worldwide. Overexploitation, such as overfishing and hunting, also threatens species survival, disrupting the balance of ecosystems and leading to biodiversity loss.

What is the difference between endemic and invasive flora and fauna?

Endemic flora and fauna are those that are native to a specific geographical area and are not found naturally anywhere else. In contrast, invasive species are those introduced to an area, either accidentally or deliberately, where they are not native. Invasive species can outcompete, prey upon, or bring diseases to native species, often leading to ecological and economic damage.

How can we protect and preserve flora and fauna?

Protecting flora and fauna involves conserving their habitats, enforcing laws against poaching and illegal trade, and managing invasive species. Establishing protected areas, such as national parks and wildlife reserves, is crucial. Additionally, supporting sustainable practices, reducing carbon footprints, and participating in conservation programs can contribute to the preservation of biodiversity.

What role does biodiversity play in the health of flora and fauna?

Biodiversity, the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem, is essential for the health and resilience of flora and fauna. High biodiversity ensures that ecosystems can recover from disturbances, resist diseases, and maintain functions such as nutrient cycling and pollination, which are vital for all life forms, including humans.

Discussion Comments


I had a confusion with flora and fauna but now it is solved. I love this site. In fact, whenever I have any problem with some question in my mind, I always refer to this site on the internet and always get a perfect answer.


Thanks for the information. Wikipedia showed me this when I was recently researching the geography of Australia.


How is flora formed?


This is a great, informative article that has just the facts and nothing asking you to buy something. This is exactly what I was looking for. It tells what it is and it includes a history of the subject I was looking up. And now, I've learned something I didn't know before!


Do Flora and Fauna has something to do with the culture of a particular geographic region?


Flora on the planet is diverse and beautiful. Your article is very useful, especially to people who are not in nature. Thanks to author articles and website!


Someone tell me what conflicts arose over flora and fauna?


I am researching these plants: celtis, harpery, horne ex baker, ulmaceae.


With all due respect, I disagree with this author's claim that fauna can be defined as wildlife. Fauna means animals, but wildlife can include plants:

World English Dictionary: wildlife — n. Wild animals and plants collectively.


Does flora and fauna specifically refer to "flowers and animals" or could it just mean like plants and animals?


Floora(sic) and Fauna are mentioned in the classic Frank Zappa track Dynah-moh Hum.


Thanks for a wonderful article.


well it was good and appropriate info was given.


Exactly what I was looking for. thanks, great article.


For everybody wondering: fauna means species and flora means flowers.


i like this!


I'm studying flora and fauna. could you please tell me the meanings or what these words mean to you, if they are plants or species? my tutor is getting me confused. lobed, potioles, dioecious, quadrangular, pubescent.


Great. i finally proved my dad wrong. he said both flora and fauna were plants but i got him.


a very well classified article.


nice article. contains good, knowledgeable material.


That was cool. Before visiting this site for many many years I thought the words flora and fauna were somewhat referring to the environment, but still I was not satisfied from inside, and believed that there was some exact meaning of these words, until i found this while doing some research. Thank you.


Not to be completely off topic, but aren't those the names of the conjoined twins in the Addams Family movie.


this is a great website but i think someone got her facts wrong, she said that australia has native flora and fauna. choose two of each and then label them. What?


This is a great website. it has given me the exact answer i have been looking for.


brilliant. i got just what i was looking for!


Perfect. I got the answer I was looking for.


i thank you for this article. I've found what i was searching for.


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Awesome, thanks.


well it's really very good.

I think it's high time to wake up about our environment, and i believe that every person should understand their responsibilities for the

environment and nature because this is our mother.

She is sick now, so as a good son/daughter

we have the responsibility to make her healthy again. Goodbye and good luck to all.


Very cool article.


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This is a great, informative article that has just the facts and nothing asking you to buy something. This is exactly what I was looking for. It tells what it is and it includes a history of the subject I was looking up. And now, I've learned something I didn't know before!


What impacts do Tsunamis have on the ecosystems?

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    • Forests often exhibit a broad diversity of flora and fauna.
      Forests often exhibit a broad diversity of flora and fauna.
    • Terrariums are commonly used to hold flora that thrives in dry habitats.
      By: jrwasserman
      Terrariums are commonly used to hold flora that thrives in dry habitats.
    • Fauna may refer to the wildlife of a certain environment.
      By: ysbrandcosijn
      Fauna may refer to the wildlife of a certain environment.