The optimal diet for an iguana would be one that includes a variety of plant-based foods, fed fresh every day. Green leafy vegetables should make up roughly half of the iguana's diet. Fruits should comprise approximately ten percent of the iguana diet, while whole grains should make up about five percent of the diet. A fresh supply of clean water should be available at all times, even though iguanas do not naturally consume a great amount.
Iguanas are natural herbivores. This means the species typically will not eat animal-based food, including insects, unless forced to in the wild. They primarily will consume plant matter, including fruits and vegetables. Many experts concur that feeding iguanas animal protein is not a good choice, and should only be done on rare occasions.
A good selection of vegetables for the best iguana diet would include such foods as collard, dandelion, and mustard greens. Squash, asparagus, and carrots are also beneficial. Most peppers have good nutritional value and iguanas seem to readily accept these. When considering which fruits to include in an iguana diet, berries and melons are good choices. Grapes, apples, figs, and bananas are also recommended.
In deciding which other foods to include in the iguana diet, be sure to include grains. These should be offered sparingly, however. If choosing to feed rice and pasta, these items should be thoroughly cooked. Whole wheat bread may be offered as an occasional treat in small amounts, according to the size of the iguana.
The pet iguana will need a supply of protein in its diet to maintain proper growth and optimal health. The natural diet will be lacking protein, therefore supplements are recommended. While the protein supplements will only comprise about five percent of the iguana's diet, requirements can be met through pellets. Alfalfa, such as the type found in rabbit food, is beneficial.
An iguana should never be fed dairy products and eggs. These foods are not intended for reptile consumption and could be hazardous to an iguana's health. Animal protein in the form of meat, fish, or poultry is also not recommended for these reptiles. It is crucial that under no circumstances should rhubarb be fed to an iguana. Rhubarb can be toxic to the iguana species and therefore must be avoided.
Another essential point to keep in mind is household dangers. One such potential danger would be house plants, which may look like food to the iguana. Many common varieties may be toxic, therefore house plants need to be out of the reach of the pet iguana. Plants of all kinds that are in proximity of the iguana's housing may prove tempting to the reptile's natural curiosity. As always, it is better to be safe than sorry.