The sculpin is a spiny fish in the order Scorpaenidae, family Cottidae. They are relatives of scorpion fish, and common in North American waters. The sculpin can be found in both salt and fresh water, and commonly in tide pools and other shallow water, where it clings close to the bottom. Over 300 species can be found in the Cottidae family.
Sculpins tend to be small, rarely growing over one foot (30 centimeters) in length, with compressed bodies, large fanlike fins, and an intimidating array of spines along their dorsal fins. Many sculpins carry toxins in their spines, and should therefore be handled with care to prevent discomfort. Although the toxin found in sculpin spines is rarely fatal, it can cause skin irritation, sweating, nausea, or dizziness. Immersion of the affected area in hot water has been shown to alleviate the effects of the toxin. If concerned, medical attention should be sought.
Sculpins vary widely in color, usually adapting to their surroundings. They can be found in brick red, green, and brown variations, and are frequently striped or variegated. The sculpin is quite distinctive when seen in a tide pool, and thus easily avoided by the barefooted. The sculpin is also highly predatory, eating essentially anything that will fit in its mouth, which can cause it to be a nuisance to anglers.
Sculpin are not generally eaten by humans, because of their toxicity and boniness. Some species do rely upon the sculpin for food, and have come up with adaptations for processing the toxin carried in their spines. Trout and bass have both been known to eat sculpin, as well as its eggs.
Some aquarists maintain that sculpins, although they lack the brilliant coloring of some tropical species, are quite attractive and make an interesting addition to aquaria. In general, the sculpin prefers cold to temperate water and a rocky habitat with many hiding spaces. Because sculpins are highly predatory, care should be taken about which species are housed with sculpins, and live food should be provided for the fish. In addition, sculpins prefer well circulated water and a filtration system is recommended.
The sculpin is not considered to be a fish species at risk, primarily because it is not a human food source. Some areas of sculpin habitat, particularly fresh water sculpin, are subject to environmental degradation, but this widespread and adaptable fish does not appear to be suffering as a result.