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The moccasin snake is a pit viper in the same general family as the rattlesnake and the copperhead. A water moccasin is the only poisonous water snake in North America, and one of the most deadly. It is usually found near streams and ponds, and is considered semi-aquatic. The scientific name for the moccasin snake is agkistrodon piscivorus.
Moccasin snakes display the same dark coloration of other water snakes but have the vertical pupils typical of pit vipers, while nonvenomous water snakes have pupils that are round. Water moccasins have very broad bodies compared to other snakes, and the adults attain a length of anywhere from four to six feet (122 to 183 cm). A moccasin snake has a triangular head which it commonly holds at a 45-degree angle. Adult snakes often have a diamond or banded pattern in tan or greenish colors, and their coloration is drab compared to the young moccasins. A distinct pit can be seen between the eyes and nostrils of the snake.
The female moccasin snake is mature enough to bear young when she is about three years old. She does not lay eggs like nonpoisonous snakes do, and instead gives birth to anywhere from one to sixteen live snakelets that are between 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) long. The female will then bear young about every other year. Young moccasin snakes have brighter coloration than the adults, and resemble copperheads with yellowish or lime-green tails.
Moccasin snakes have a varied diet and will eat birds, lizards, mammals, alligators, and turtles. They also eat fish, frogs, and other snakes. The moccasin snake can be seen lying on rocks, logs, and tree limbs that hang over waterways, waiting silently for prey to appear. They also inhabit ditches, swamps, canals, and creeks. Moccasin snakes don’t announce that they are about to strike, unlike their cousin, the rattler.
Another name for the moccasin snake is cottonmouth because when the snake is startled or threatened, it raises its head and opens its mouth, displaying a snowy white interior. It is one of the most aggressive snakes, and instead of leaving a threatening situation will often head towards the person or animal and attack. The moccasin snake has curved, hollow fangs that swing forward and become filled with venom when the snake opens its mouth to strike. Unlike other snakes which strike and withdraw, the moccasin snake will latch onto its prey. If left untreated, its bite can be fatal.