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What is a Longnose Dace?

By R. Britton
Updated Jun 04, 2024
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A longnose dace is a small fresh water fish. The scientific or taxonomic name of this species is Rhinichthys cataractae and is a bottom feeding omnivore. The longnose dace is valued as a food source for larger predatory fish. It is native to North and Central America but is becoming locally threatened in some ares.

Only reaching up to 5 inches (12 centimeters) long, this fish has a forked tail and appears to be long and thin with an almost flat underside. The mouth of this species faces downward; when combined with the flat belly, it makes the longnose dace perfectly designed for life as a bottom dweller and feeder. The downward facing mouth is used for foraging for food items and sifting through the silt and debris on the bottom of the habitat. The diet of this species includes invertebrates, crustaceans, insects, larvae, and plant matter.

It prefers fast flowing bodies of water with rocky, uneven terrain at the bottom. The longnose dace is classified as a forage fish and provides a valuable food source for larger predatory fish. This species is particularly valued among minnow species as a food source for game fish.

The longnose dace is a member of the Rhinichthys genus. This species is characterized by its large upper jaw, giving the mouth a downward slant. Most species belonging to this group are also smaller omnivorous, bottom feeding fish. This species is commonly confused with the blacknose dace which is a close relative and has a very similar appearance. The blacknose dace has a much smaller geographic range and prefers less turbulent waters, however.

Occasionally observed in large groups during the breeding season, the longnose dace is more commonly a solitary fish. A single female of this species can lay up to 3,000 eggs each season. The eggs are sticky and sink to the bottom, thus adhering to rocks and plants. These fish commonly breed with other species, creating hybrids which are usually sterile, i.e., unable to produce offspring when they mature.

Found throughout most of North and Central America, the longnose dace has a wide geographic range and reasonably large numbers. For this reason, it is not listed as threatened or endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). While abundant in much of its range, this species faces localized population declines. In Ohio, for example, it is classified as a Species of Concern according to the state Department of Natural Resources.

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