A trout hatchery is a special facility designed to breed, hatch, and grow trout fish for consumption or population of lakes, rivers, or for ornamental purposes. The trout hatchery goes back as a formal organization to the 1950s, when the United States Trout Farmers Association was formed. A trout hatchery is similar to a trout farm, and in many cases will be used synonymously. At other times, the term trout farm will be used to describe a hatchery growing fish for consumption, while the term trout hatchery will be used only to describe a place growing fish for release into lakes, streams, or private tanks.
Trout is a freshwater fish, and one of the most popular food fishes in North America. The name is used to describe a wide range of fish, all part of a subfamily of the Salmonidae family, called Salmoninae. Some popular species of trout include the Adriatic trout, the Rainbow trout, the Golden trout, and the Lake trout. Different species of trout can have drastically different color patterns, and can look quite different, as well as having significantly different tastes.
They are one of the most popular fish for recreational lake fishing, because they not only make for a good meal, but also put up quite a fight on the end of a line, making them entertaining to catch. As a result, they are somewhat over-fished in many lakes, and the trout hatchery offers a way to replenish depleted stock without limiting the amount of recreational fishing that can take place. This can be seen as a form of natural-world stewardship, although many environmentalists object to the use of the trout hatchery because of its environmental impacts.
Objections are also raised to the trout hatchery because of the production of what are widely viewed as genetically inferior fish. These fish, when reintroduced to the wild, may out-compete wild fish in the short term, even though they are of a weaker genetic make-up, and may interbreed with them, diminishing the strain. Proving any direct correlation, however, has proven to be very difficult, largely because there are so many other factors at play in the fisheries that it is difficult to isolate just one cause of any problem. For this reason, the debate over whether the trout hatchery is a boon or a bane to trout as a whole rages fiercely.
Hatcheries are fairly straightforward in what they do, with a great deal of manual labor involved. Female fish are taken out of the water by a worker, and her eggs are released into a dish or mixing basin. The male’s sperm, known as milt, is then added to the mixture, fertilizing the eggs. The eggs are then left to incubate in isolation, resulting in a much higher survival rate than would occur in the wild, where predators would eat the majority of them.
Once the eggs hatch into fry, what happens next depends on the purpose of the trout hatchery. If it is a true hatchery, meant to restock lakes, these fry will then be trucked to streams and released, where they can then make their own way in the wild. In a trout farm, the fry will be raised on commercial fish food, moved into larger and larger tanks, until they are full grown and can be killed and packaged for food.