The sharp-shinned hawk is a bird of prey that often hunts at bird feeders. These hawks can be found in almost all of North America and some of South America. They nest in trees in forested areas, but often come to urban areas to feed. The scientific name for the sharp-shinned hawk is accipiter straitus.
Considered small for a hawk, sharp-shinned females reach between 11.5 and 13.5 inches (29-34 cm) with a wing span of around 24 inches (61 cm). Males are smaller still, reaching 9.5-10.5 inches (24-27 cm). Males have a wingspan of about 21-25 inches (53-63 cm). Females also weigh more than males, about 5 to 8 ounces (142-227 g) compared to the males' 3 to 4 ounces (87-114 g).
Similar to the Cooper's hawk, the sharp-shinned hawk is bluish grey on top with red barring on its underside. The female is darker and more brownish with less barring. A juvenile will be brown on top with a streaked brown belly. This hawk's tail is also barred and squared at the end, and its hooked beak is short and dark.
Sharp-shins mainly eat small birds. They will, however, eat small mammals and some larger insects. These hawks capture birds in the air or on the ground after a quick dive. They are often stealthy—even using cover to hide—and enjoy the songbird buffet that man-made bird feeders provide.
The sharp-shinned hawk nests in coniferous forests. Nest are placed high in trees, 20-60 feet (6.1-18.2 m) above the ground, against a trunk and supported by thick branches. Sometimes this bird will use the old nests of crows or other hawks.
Thought to mate for life, sharp-shinned hawks engage in courtship flights before their breeding season, which occurs March through June. Females generally lay between three and eight eggs, which hatch after 21-35 days. The females remain at the nest to incubate the eggs while the males hunt for food. When the young hatch, they are white and downy.
Young sharp-shinned hawks will be able to leave the nest after 21-32 days. After leaving the nest, they will stay with their parents for nearly a month. When feeding, parents will toss food to the young in midair. Sharp-shinned hawks can live as long as 13 years, but frequently live as little as three.
In the 1940s-70s, there was a major decline in the sharp-shinned hawk population because of the use of the pesticide DDT. This pesticide thinned the egg shells of many birds so their eggs were crushed before the embryos could mature. Since the 70s, the sharp-shinned population has partially recovered in the United States due to protection under the US Migratory Bird Treaty Act.