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What is a Rat King?

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

A rat king is a cluster of rats which have become attached to each other by their tails. There is some debate over whether or not the rat king phenomenon is real, with some people arguing that the specimens on display are fakes, while others have attempted to prove that a rat king could actually form under certain conditions. As a general rule, rat kings are viewed as cryptozoological in origin, meaning that while they could potentially be real, they are not widely accepted by most scientists and biologists.

According to people who believe that rat kings could actually happen, they are created when a colony of rats is crowded together in a cramped space, with the animals facing outwards to deal with potential threats. As a result of prolonged confinement, the tails of the animals start to become attached to each other, entangling and forming knots which are glued together with the body fluids of the animals. When the rats are released from the confined space and they try to pull apart, the knots tighten, permanently connecting the rats to each other.

A brown rat.
A brown rat.

Several museums have rat kings in their archives or on display. According to people who have studied these specimens, there are some features of these rat kings which suggest that they could be genuine. These features include tails with a large number of breaks, and calluses from where the tails rubbed against each other while the rats were alive. These rat kings are often mummified by dry conditions in walls, further supporting the idea that they formed as a result of being forced into a confined space.

The rat king was viewed historically as a bad omen, and probably with good cause. Rats carry a number of diseases, perhaps most notably plague, so it is understandable that people would associate bad luck with a large cluster of rats. Diseases tend to arise more readily when animals are confined close together, so the rat king would be a breeding ground of disease if it actually existed.

There is some debate over the origin of the name. Medieval scholars have suggested that people may have been under the impression that the rat king was actually one animal with many bodies, with the “king” referring to the animal's size. Legends have suggested that a “king rat” sat on the tails of the rat king, overseeing the movement of the animals as they attempted to navigate with their matted tails.

Frequently Asked Questions

What exactly is a Rat King?

A Rat King is a rare phenomenon where multiple rats become intertwined at their tails, often due to sticky or matted substances like sap or gum. This entanglement is so severe that the rats cannot separate themselves, leading to a cluster of rats that move together in a disorganized manner.

How does a Rat King form?

Rat Kings form when a number of rats living in close quarters get their tails entangled. This can happen due to sticky substances, tangled fur, or feces. As they struggle to free themselves, the knot only tightens, resulting in a more complex and inextricable tangle.

Are Rat Kings a common occurrence?

Rat Kings are extremely rare. Historically, there have been only a few dozen reported cases. The decrease in sightings over time could be attributed to better sanitation and less cramped living conditions for rats, reducing the chances of such an event occurring.

Can a Rat King survive in the wild?

Survival for a Rat King in the wild is highly unlikely. The rats' movement is severely hindered, making it difficult to find food or escape predators. Additionally, the stress and physical strain can lead to injury or death for the entangled rats.

What is the historical significance of Rat Kings?

Historically, Rat Kings were seen as a bad omen or a sign of impending plague. They have been part of folklore and superstition, particularly in Europe. Museums in some countries, like Germany, have preserved Rat Kings as curiosities, reflecting the cultural impact of this phenomenon.

How are Rat Kings handled when found?

When a Rat King is found, it is usually handled by professionals who attempt to carefully separate the animals, although this is often not possible without causing further harm. In some cases, the entire cluster is euthanized to prevent suffering. If preserved, Rat Kings can be studied or displayed in museums.

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a AllThingsNature researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Learn more...
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a AllThingsNature researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Learn more...

Discussion Comments


This is referenced in one cartoon in the trade collection "Greyshirt" Indigo Sunset (R. Veitch) series. Also from a reference in one set of stories in "Halo Jones" (Gibson/A. Moore) from 2000AD comics.


This morning my farm worker killed a rat king that he found at dawn in the chicken pen. I have taken photographs. This phenomena is apparently real, and extremely weird.


Because they're extremely rare and almost always found dead.


what I have read on Rat kings is that it is only the black rat which is prone to this happening. Something about its tail structure. I think that's Ratus ratus.

Anyway most came out of chimneys and tight crawl spaces where constant climbing through nests caused the black rats tails to twine. When they fought and bred it became even worse. Sores on the tails scabbed up and scars/circulation cut off made them hard to detangle, even w/ out pulling tight.

Again, it's the less common Black rat (not those brown norwegian, or grey field rats) that this happens with. As they are less common, a population density high enough to create this would be high enough for a plague level of fleas.


because they can't get out of the confined spaces.


how come you never see pictures or photos of rat kings when they are alive?

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    • A brown rat.
      By: Ilia Shcherbakov
      A brown rat.