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What Is a Human Flea?

Stephany Seipel
Stephany Seipel

Pulex irritans, or the human flea, is a small bloodsucking insect that can be found on nearly every continent. It was a common nuisance in both rich and poor households during the Middle Ages but was rarely found indoors by 2011. These insects often irritate the skin when they bite human hosts. They also are capable of spreading serious diseases from one person to another.

The human flea is less common than other varieties such as rat fleas or cat fleas. This species often breeds around pigpens. Human fleas mainly prefer pig and human blood, but they also feed on the blood of badgers, foxes, skunks and some other wild mammals.

A flea.
A flea.

Pulex irritans fleas are usually between one-sixteenth and one-eighth of an inch long (1.587 to 3.175 mm). They have dark brown or black bodies, with long, spiny legs; short, jointed antennae; flattened sides; and no wings. They move from one place to another by crawling or jumping. A human flea can jump as much as 100 times its body size.

These insects have piercing and sucking mouthparts. Their saw-like mandibles slice into the host's flesh and release an anticoagulant into the skin to keep the blood from clotting as the insect feeds. They then suck blood from the human or animal host. Fleas can live for months or years without feeding when acceptable hosts are unavailable.

A human flea may feed on skunks.
A human flea may feed on skunks.

Female fleas lay eggs on the bodies of their hosts. The eggs are not barbed or sticky and do not adhere to the host, so they often fall from the animal and into its bedding. The eggs hatch into white, worm-like, legless larvae. Larval human fleas feed on adult fecal matter and organic animal material.

Young fleas shed their exoskeletons three times before entering a pupal stage. They mature inside silken cocoons and exit as adults. The maturation process usually takes three to four weeks, depending upon climate and host availability.

The human flea can spread bacterium from rats to humans.
The human flea can spread bacterium from rats to humans.

Human flea bites usually leave small, red, itchy marks on hosts when they feed. Some people are more sensitive to flea bites than others. The anticoagulant in human flea saliva might cause severe itching or rash. Scratching the flea bites might lead to secondary infections.

Pulex irritans is capable of spreading the Yersinia pestis bacterium from rats to humans. This bacterium causes bubonic plague, a serious disease that killed approximately 200 million people during the 14th century in a pandemic called the Black Death. Plague outbreaks were still occurring as of 2011, but antibiotics have greatly improved the survival rate of infected patients.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a human flea and how does it differ from other fleas?

A human flea, scientifically known as Pulex irritans, is a species of flea that primarily feeds on human blood. Unlike the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, or the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis, which prefer animal hosts, human fleas are adapted to living with humans. They have flatter bodies and longer legs for jumping, which are distinct adaptations for living and moving through human hair.

How can you identify a human flea infestation?

Signs of a human flea infestation include itchy, red bumps on the skin, often around the ankles or waist. You may also notice flea dirt, which looks like small black specks, in bedding or around living spaces. In severe cases, pets or wildlife acting as carriers can lead to a noticeable presence of fleas jumping in the area.

What are the health risks associated with human fleas?

Human fleas can transmit various diseases, including plague and murine typhus, though these are less common today due to improved hygiene and pest control. Flea bites can also lead to secondary infections from scratching and allergic reactions known as flea allergy dermatitis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, fleas are potential vectors for various pathogens.

How can a human flea infestation be treated?

Treating a human flea infestation involves a combination of cleaning, vacuuming, and laundering to remove fleas from the environment. Professional pest control services may apply insecticides to eradicate fleas. It's also crucial to treat pets with veterinarian-approved flea control products to prevent reinfestation.

Can human fleas live on pets?

While human fleas prefer human hosts, they can and will feed on pets if humans are not available. They are opportunistic feeders and will take blood meals from a variety of mammals, including dogs and cats. However, they are less likely to thrive on pets compared to species-specific fleas.

What preventive measures can be taken to avoid human flea infestations?

To prevent human flea infestations, maintain good hygiene, regularly wash bedding and clothing, and vacuum frequently. Protect pets with regular flea treatments and consult a veterinarian for the best options. Seal entry points in your home to keep out wild animals that may carry fleas, and consider using insect growth regulators in high-risk areas.

Discussion Comments


@Laotionne - As strange as it sounds, dogs are more likely to have cat fleas than dog fleas. People are also more likely to be bitten by cat fleas than by human fleas.


This article talks about how the human flea can carry diseases. My vet told me that a common problem with fleas on pets is that the fleas will give the animals worms. Cats are even more likely to be affected because they are constantly cleaning themselves and swallow more fleas and flea eggs.


@Laotionne - I think fleas will bite whatever or whoever comes along. They are just hanging around outside on blades of grass waiting for a warm blooded animal to come along. I have been bitten by plenty of fleas that hopped off of dogs.

By the way, when a flea bites you the best thing you can do is leave the bites alone and definitely do not scratch them. Flea bites don't bother me, but my girlfriend can't just leave them alone. She scratches and scratches until her arm looks like she was attacked by a gang of mad alley cats.


I always thought that all fleas were the same. Now I am wondering, does the cat flea bite humans, or does it just stay on the cat and feed?

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    • A flea.
      By: Carolina K Smith MD
      A flea.
    • A human flea may feed on skunks.
      By: Eric Isselée
      A human flea may feed on skunks.
    • The human flea can spread bacterium from rats to humans.
      By: nastjanova
      The human flea can spread bacterium from rats to humans.