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What is a Green Woodpecker?

Carol Kindle
Carol Kindle

The green woodpecker (Picus viridis) is native to Europe and Western Asia and is known for its bright green top feathers. Unlike other woodpecker species, the green woodpecker feeds primarily on the ground and only occasionally in trees. It is the largest of the woodpeckers found in Europe and it measures about 12.6 inches (32cm) in length and can weigh up to 0.5 lbs (220g).

Widely distributed throughout Europe, the green woodpecker can be found in large numbers in France, Spain, Germany, and England. It is not found in Ireland or Scotland, but it does live in the northern parts of Africa. Open woodlands, lawns, and gardens are the primary habitats of the green woodpecker.

Green woodpeckers eat earthworms.
Green woodpeckers eat earthworms.

Its green coloring allows this woodpecker to remain hidden from view while on the ground feeding on ants. It also feeds on other insects, earthworms, insect larvae, and occasionally fruit. Its long tongue and sharp bill makes it easier to dig in the ground for food.

In addition to its bright green upper feathers, the green woodpecker has a distinctive red crown on the top of its head. It also has a long black bill with a black ring surrounding each eye. Feathers on the rear end of this woodpecker species are yellowish-green and are most visible when the woodpecker takes flight. This type of bird has an average wingspan of 16.5 inches (42cm).

The male and female green woodpeckers are slightly different in appearance. Males have a rectangular red patch beneath the eyes, while in the females this patch is black. A very distinctive call similar to a laugh helps this woodpecker mark its territory.

Pairing of males and females occurs only for breeding, which usually begins during early spring. First a nest must be carved out of the bark of a tree. The male takes on this task and it can take up to a month to complete the nest. After mating, the female can lay up to seven white oval eggs. These are incubated in the nest by both the male and female woodpecker for about three weeks.

Chicks remain in the nest and are cared for by both parents for another three weeks. After this time, the chicks begin feeding on their own. The juveniles have green upper feathers with spots and their underbellies are gray instead of yellow. Once old enough, the woodpeckers separate and live alone until the next breeding season.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a Green Woodpecker?

The Green Woodpecker is a bird species known for its distinctive green plumage, red crown, and loud, laughing call. It's scientifically named Picus viridis and is one of the largest woodpeckers in Europe. These birds primarily feed on ants and are found in woodlands, parks, and gardens.

Where can you find Green Woodpeckers?

Green Woodpeckers are native to Europe and parts of Asia. They thrive in deciduous woodlands, but can also be found in mixed woodlands, orchards, and large gardens. They prefer areas with plenty of ants, their main food source, and are often seen on the ground foraging.

What do Green Woodpeckers eat?

Green Woodpeckers have a diet that is heavily ant-based; they use their long, sticky tongues to extract ants from their nests. They also consume other insects and larvae, but ants can constitute up to 90% of their diet during certain times of the year.

How do Green Woodpeckers communicate?

Green Woodpeckers are known for their distinctive "yaffle" call, which sounds like loud laughter and can be heard from a considerable distance. They also communicate through drumming on trees with their beaks, a behavior common among woodpecker species, which serves both to mark territory and attract mates.

Are Green Woodpeckers solitary or social birds?

Green Woodpeckers are generally solitary birds, especially outside of the breeding season. They are territorial and will defend their feeding grounds vigorously. However, during the breeding season, they may be seen in pairs, and family groups can sometimes be observed until the young are fully independent.

What is the conservation status of the Green Woodpecker?

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Green Woodpecker is currently classified as a species of Least Concern. This indicates that they are widespread and relatively abundant in their range, with no immediate threats leading to a rapid decline in their population.

Discussion Comments


Just had one digging around in front garden in West Moors, Dorset. Seems to have come long way from Scotland.


Green Woodpeckers *are* found in Scotland. I was watching a pair in the woods behind Loch Cote near Linlithgow yesterday. They first colonized Scotland in 1950 and are now found as far north as Aberdeen. There are none in Ireland, however.

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    • Green woodpeckers eat earthworms.
      By: Henrik Larsson
      Green woodpeckers eat earthworms.