The donkey is a member of the horse family which has been used as a beast of burden and mount for thousands of years. These animals are well known for being extremely stubborn, especially when they are asked to do things which are dangerous, but they are also very gentle and incredibly surefooted, allowing them to traverse diverse terrain which would be too rough for horses. Donkeys can be found all over the world, and there are a number of breeds including the Mammoth Jack, Spotted Donkey, and Cypriot Donkey. You may also hear a it referred to as an “ass,” with most people using the term for larger animals, reserving “donkey” for smaller ones.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the modern donkey is probably a domestic version of the African wild ass, Equus asinus, and they are known by the same scientific name to reflect this. The Egyptians may have been the first to make use of the animal, probably initially as a beast of burden, as numerous paintings and works of Egyptian art suggest, and the animals slowly spread throughout the world from there.
The donkey has several advantages over the horse. These equines are incredibly strong, sometimes able to carry as much as 40% of their body weight. They are also easy keepers, requiring minimal food and capable of digesting almost anything edible. Their infamous stubbornness also keeps these animals and their riders out of danger, and donkeys are known for being very patient and trusting with people they know. Historically, many people had donkeys because they could not afford horses, and it became known as an animal of the lower classes as a result, with many peasant groups and folk organizations adopting the animal as their symbol.
In appearance, a donkey looks sort of like a horse, with a few major differences. Once of the most notable differences is the ears, which are extremely large and rimmed in black. Donkeys also have tails which differ from those of horses, with a small tuft of hair at the end, and their manes are short and upright, like many wild equids. The voice, known as its bray, is also quite distinctive and extremely loud.
Many breeds are marked with a dark cross formed by a long dorsal stripe from mane to tail, and a crossbar across their shoulders. In some Christian countries, people say that this cross is a mark of God's favor, acknowledging that a donkey carried the pregnant Mary into Bethlehem. Christ was also known for riding a donkey, probably because He was too poor to own a horse, and some folktales suggest that the animal acquired its cross by being present at the Crucifixion.
When a stallion is crossed with a jenny, or female donkey, the result is a hinny. When a jack or male is crossed with a mare, the result is a mule. These hybrids combine the best traits of donkeys and horses, and they are popular pack animals in many parts of the world. Depending on where you are, you may also hear small donkeys called “burros,” especially in Latin America and the Southern United States, in a reference to the animals brought to the Americas by the Spanish.