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What is a Box Elder Bug?

A. B. Kelsey
A. B. Kelsey

The box elder bug (Boisea trivittata) is a species of true bug in the order Hemiptera, which means “half-winged.” A box elder bug undergoes a gradual metamorphosis, changing from egg to nymph and then to adult. These bugs grow to be about one-half inch (12.5 milimeters) in length. An adult box elder bug is blackish-brown with three red lines marking the thorax and wing veins. Nymphs have bright red abdomens and no wings.

Box elder bugs primarily live on female boxelder trees or maple trees, which is why they are sometimes called maple bugs. These bugs feed on a variety of soft plant tissues, such as new twigs, flowers and leaves. Their favorite food, however, is boxelder seed pods. Box elder bugs typically do very little damage to the trees they attack unless there is an exceptionally large number of bugs.


Adult box elder bugs can become household pests in the colder months when they crawl inside buildings to hibernate. They tend to overwinter in protected places such as cracks in walls, around foundations, and under windows and doors with western or southern exposures. Although box elder bugs are inactive when it is cold, heaters can wake them up and they might move into the parts of buildings where people live or work.

In warmer months, box elder bugs leave their winter locations to lay eggs on boxelder and maple trees. By late spring, groups of these bugs can be spotted sunning themselves on buildings near their feeding trees. A box elder bug has good eyesight and will generally fly away when approached by humans. During a box elder bug infestation, however, massive numbers will group together on the brick or siding of a building and not disperse when approached.

In these cases, one way to get rid of boxelder bugs is to spray them with a mixture of two tablespoons of natural soap in a gallon of water. This solution might damage vegetation and the siding of the building, however. Natural insecticides can usually eliminate the bugs with less chance of damage or staining. Both the soap mixture and the insecticide should be sprayed around any vents, doors, eaves, soffits and siding where the bugs can crawl inside of the building. The south and southwest sides of the building should receive most of the insecticide because these sunnier spots are far more likely to attract boxelder bugs.

Control is a bit more difficult once box elder bugs have invaded a building, however. Household insecticides are effective when applied directly to individual bugs, but this process can be time consuming and the chemicals in the insecticide might be toxic to human respiratory systems. The soap and water mixture mentioned above can be used inside the home, but it might stain or discolor any fabric or wood it touches. Perhaps the most effective way to keep box elder bugs out of the home is to caulk any cracks, fix broken door jams, repair torn window screens and put in new weather stripping. Removing female boxelder trees may not be the most desirable course of action, but it is certainly the most permanent solution to a box elder bug infestation.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a Box Elder Bug?

A Box Elder Bug, scientifically known as Boisea trivittata, is a North American species of true bug. It is easily recognizable by its distinctive black and red markings. These insects are primarily found on boxelder trees, from which they derive their name, but they are also known to inhabit other maple and ash trees. They are harmless to humans but can be a nuisance due to their tendency to invade homes in large numbers.

What do Box Elder Bugs eat?

Box Elder Bugs feed on the sap from the leaves, flowers, and seed pods of the boxelder tree and other members of the Acer family. Their diet mainly consists of the juices extracted from the tree, which they obtain using their piercing-sucking mouthparts. During the fall, they may also feed on the fruits of other trees as they prepare for overwintering.

Why do Box Elder Bugs come indoors?

Box Elder Bugs seek shelter indoors to overwinter during the colder months. They are attracted to warm surfaces and often congregate on the sunny sides of buildings. Once they find a way inside through cracks and crevices, they hibernate in wall voids or other protected spaces until the warmth of spring entices them back outside.

Are Box Elder Bugs harmful?

Box Elder Bugs are not harmful to humans or pets. They do not bite, sting, or carry diseases. However, their feces can stain surfaces, and their large numbers can be a nuisance. While they can cause minor damage to plants by feeding on sap, they are not considered a significant agricultural pest.

How can you prevent Box Elder Bugs from entering your home?

To prevent Box Elder Bugs from entering your home, seal any cracks and crevices around windows, doors, and foundations. Repair or replace damaged screens on windows and vents. Removing boxelder trees near your property can also reduce the number of bugs, although this may not be practical or desirable for everyone.

What is the best way to get rid of Box Elder Bugs?

The best way to get rid of Box Elder Bugs is to vacuum them up when they are found indoors. For outdoor infestations, insecticidal soaps or neem oil can be effective treatments. It's important to apply these treatments to the south and west sides of buildings where the bugs congregate in the fall. Professional pest control services can also provide assistance for severe infestations.

Discussion Comments


In addition to leaving a stain when they are crushed, the box elder produces a strong foul odor. This may be why they are also sometimes called politician bugs. That's a guess, but they are called politician bugs in some areas.


When you see a box elder bug in your house, your first instinct may be to smash it with something. This is not always a good idea.

One day I saw a bug climbing the drapes in our living room. When I see a bug in my house, my first thought is to kill it. Actually, I usually call someone else to come kill it when that is possible.

Anyway, the bug I saw climbing the drapes turned out to be a box elder. Since there was no one else around, I smashed the bug. I killed it, but there was a terrible stain left behind. I would definitely advise using a bug spray or capturing the bug and releasing it outside, if you are not afraid of them.


You might be surprised to know how easily bugs can enter your home. Shortly after I had a new TV system installed in my house I began to notice a number of the box elder bugs. Before then, I would see them in the yard from time to time, but never inside the house.

The guys who put in the new wires for the satellite dish removed the old wires that went with our previous system, but they did not close the holes. The holes were small--just large enough for the cable wires. However this was plenty large enough for the box elder bugs to enter.

Once I went around and closed all of the holes and sprayed the bugs that I saw in the house the bugs disappeared from the house.

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