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What is a Black Rail?

Kim Masters Evans
Kim Masters Evans

The black rail, or Laterallus jamaicensis, is a small dark bird that lives in marshy areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and South America. It is an elusive bird that is rarely seen. Its population is declining because of loss of suitable wetland habitat.

Rails are part of the Rallidae family, which includes coots. While coots are known for being loud and showy, rails are quiet and shy. The black rail is secretive and spends a lot of time on the ground hiding under vegetation. It rarely flies. Thus, the bird is seldom seen out in the open.

Black rails are declining as their wetland habitats are destroyed.
Black rails are declining as their wetland habitats are destroyed.

The black rail is a small bird, only from 5 inches to 6 inches (about 13 cm to 15 cm) long when fully grown. It has a stocky body that is mostly dark gray or black. There are small white spots scattered across its lower back, wings, and belly. It has bright scarlet eyes. Another distinctive feature is a chestnut-colored patch on the back of its neck.

Males and females are similar in appearance. Males are slightly darker than females. Young black rails are covered with down and are not as dark as adults. The young also lack the white spots and chestnut-colored patches that adorn the adults. Black rails begin life with light-colored eyes that change to scarlet when they are a few months old.

Black rails prefer salt marshes, shallow freshwater marshes, and wet meadows. Their primary habitats are coastal areas near seawater. They eat seeds, insects, spiders, and tiny invertebrates and mollusks.

During the breeding season, black rails voice a three-note call that sounds like “kic-kic-kerr” or “kick-ee-doo.” These calls are mostly heard after dark. The birds build their nests on the ground out of grass-like vegetation. The eggs are white with small brown spots. Both the male and the female tend to the eggs and the newly hatched young.

Laterallus jamaicensis is found mostly along the eastern U.S. coast and the Gulf Coast. A subspecies — the California black rail, or Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus — inhabits marshy areas of California. The eastern U.S. population migrates southward in the winter.

Black rail populations are declining as a result of wetland habitat destruction. The black rail is listed as an endangered species in several U.S. states. The U.S. government lists it as a species of concern at the federal level. This means the species is believed to be imperiled, but insufficient information exists to justify listing it under the Endangered Species Act.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a Black Rail?

The Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) is a small, elusive marsh bird known for its distinctive "ki-ki-krr" call. It's the smallest member of the rail family in North America, with a length of about 4 to 6 inches. Despite its name, the Black Rail is not entirely black; it has a dark plumage with white speckles and a unique chestnut nape.

Where can you find Black Rails?

Black Rails inhabit salt, brackish, and freshwater marshes. They are found in scattered locations across the Americas, from the United States to Brazil. In the U.S., they are primarily located along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, with some populations in California and the Southwest. Their secretive nature makes them difficult to spot, contributing to their status as a species of concern.

Why are Black Rails considered threatened?

Black Rails are considered threatened due to habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation, primarily caused by human activities such as development and agriculture. Climate change, with its associated sea-level rise and increased frequency of severe weather events, also poses a significant threat to their marshland habitats. Conservation efforts are crucial to protect these birds and their ecosystems.

What do Black Rails eat?

Black Rails are omnivores with a diet that includes a variety of insects, seeds, and small aquatic invertebrates. They forage by walking stealthily through dense vegetation or by probing the mud with their bills. Their diet reflects the biodiversity of the marshes they inhabit, emphasizing the importance of maintaining healthy wetland ecosystems.

How do Black Rails reproduce?

Black Rails typically breed during the spring and summer months. They build their nests on the ground, hidden among dense marsh vegetation to protect them from predators. A female Black Rail can lay between 5 to 13 eggs per clutch, which both parents help incubate. The chicks are precocial, meaning they are relatively mature and mobile shortly after hatching.

What conservation efforts are in place for Black Rails?

Conservation efforts for Black Rails include habitat protection and restoration, research, and monitoring programs. Organizations work to manage water levels in wetlands, control invasive species, and restore native vegetation. The Black Rail is listed as endangered or threatened in several states, which provides legal protection and resources for conservation initiatives aimed at stabilizing and increasing their populations.

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    • Black rails are declining as their wetland habitats are destroyed.
      By: Željko Radojko
      Black rails are declining as their wetland habitats are destroyed.