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What Are the Different Types of Worms?

By Marisa O'Connor
Updated Jun 04, 2024
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The term “worm” is commonly used to describe a wide range of invertebrates that are, in many cases, not closely related to one another. Some live in the soil, some in the sea, and some are parasites; some are beneficial to man, some are pests, and some can cause serious disease; the only thing they all have in common is a long, thin, flexible body. In most cases, they do not have limbs, but some insect larvae that do possess short legs are frequently described as worms. Among the animals that come under this rather ill defined and unscientific category are earthworms, nematodes, flatworms, various insect larvae, and a number of marine invertebrates.


There are around 2,700 different types of earthworm. As their name suggests, they live in the earth, and they are generally regarded as beneficial, as their movements mix the soil, keeping it well aerated and porous. Earthworms eat various types of dead organic material, such as fallen leaves and other plant parts, and excrete waste that helps supply living plants with nutrients. In some cases, however, they can be considered a pest, as they may remove leaf litter that is required by other, sometimes endangered, species.

Earthworms generally live in burrows in the soil, which may be temporary or permanent. Some types rarely leave their burrows. In areas with cold winters, the animals stay warm by burrowing deep into the soil, coming back up to the surface in spring when the ground warms up. They move using tiny bristles along their sides, controlled by muscles, and breathe by absorbing oxygen directly through their moist skins. Although they have no eyes, they are sensitive to light and will avoid it.

Some types of earthworm can grow to a considerable size. The types most commonly found in the USA, often called “nightcrawlers”, typically grow to a little over one foot (30 centimeters) in length, but the largest North American species, the endangered Giant Palouse worm, can reach three feet (one meter). Much larger types are found in other parts of the world. The Giant Gippsland Earthworm from Australia grows up to nine feet (three meters) in length, and a 22 ft (6.7 m) specimen was reported in South Africa.


There are just under 20,000 known species of nematode worms, but the true number may be much higher, as many types have not been studied closely, due to their usually small size and diverse habitats. They are extremely numerous, and are thought to be the most abundant animals on the planet — a small sample of soil will contain many thousands of them. The vast majority of species are very small, often less than 0.04 inches (1mm) long, but a few are much longer — a 26 foot (8m) specimen was reportedly found in a sperm whale.

Huge numbers of nematodes are found in soil. Some are considered pests, as they eat plant roots, but some are predatory and may be beneficial to man by eating various invertebrate pests, including other nematodes. Many species are parasitic, and just about every animal species, including humans, can potentially harbor a parasitic nematode. Roundworms and hookworms, which can infect domestic pets and humans, are two common examples. Some other nematode infections, such as trichinosis, can be very serious.


The flatworms include both predatory and parasitic species. The reason they are flat is that they have no circulatory system — oxygen and nutrients reach cells by diffusing through tissue, so the cells must all be near the surface to receive oxygen and near the gut to receive nutrients from food. The gut may be branched, to enable distribution of nutrients to all tissues.

Among the most studied types of non-parasitic flatworms are the planarians, which are best known for their ability to regenerate lost body parts. Planarians can be cut in half, or even into smaller pieces, and survive, with each part eventually growing into a new, complete animal. They are found in both fresh and salt water, and in damp soil.

Many other types of flatworm are parasites. Among the best known are tapeworms, which live in the intestines of mammals, absorbing pre-digested food. Some types can grow to over 65 ft (20 m) long in land mammals, and whale tapeworms reaching 100 ft (30 m) have been reported. In humans, these parasites are usually picked up from undercooked meat. Liver flukes, which often affect sheep, are another type of parasitic flatworm.

Wormlike Insect Larvae

Many insects have larvae that are commonly described as worms. For example, inchworms, — the caterpillars of geometrid moths — have three pairs of legs at the front of their bodies and two to three pairs at the back, and move with a looping motion. This, combined with the fact that many types grow to around an inch (2.54 cm) long, gives them their name: they look as if they are measuring out inches. There are around 1,200 species of geometrid moth in North America, and many more in other parts of the world.

One interesting type of inchworm is called the cankerworm. It can produce a thin line made of silk, similar to a spider web. The threads are often produced when the caterpillar has to drop from a tree in order to evade a predator. Cankerworms come in a variety of colors, but they all have distinctive long horizontal stripes on their bodies. They are one of the most destructive pests to crops, and often feed on fruit trees.

Marine Worms

The polychaetes, or bristle worms, are the most commonly seen marine worms. They have segmented bodies with prominent bristles, and many species live in burrows in sand or mud at the seashore or in shallow coastal waters, although some species are found on the sea floor under deep water or among coral reefs. Bristle worms sometimes cement together sand or grit particles to construct tubes, which they live in. They are mostly predators, but some species may scavenge. Some types are very brightly colored, and a few are luminous.

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Discussion Comments
By anon992550 — On Sep 16, 2015

Worms are also important.

By anon991086 — On May 25, 2015

I found little black worms coming through my carpet inside the house. What are they and where do they come from and how do I get rid of them?

By anon990865 — On May 13, 2015

I've been trying to find what type of worm I found all day. He was white with a red head, just under an inch long and he had the little worm legs. I found him at the beach, when I excavated him from the sand he was in he flipped out and tried to get back under the sand he was lying on I picked him up and looked at him, and then I just put some sand on him and went on with my day. So basically we have a red headed white worm with worm legs that likes to be buried in sand. He also didn't seem to mind me. He didn't bite or anything.

By anon990570 — On Apr 28, 2015

My plants have worms that are killing my plants, and I can't find any thing about these worms. What should I do?

By anon351394 — On Oct 13, 2013

Tonight I was walking around the farm in the dark when I noticed spots of green light dotted around on the ground. When I switched the torch on, it looked to be mucus emitted from a worm. I watched as the worm crawled away, leaving another luminous spot. After a few minutes, the spots faded away. Does anyone know of this occurring before? I did take a picture of the worm.

By anon332731 — On May 01, 2013

I found a worm in the bush today. I picked it up and it squirted out some clear liquid, like some sort of defense mechanism. It stunk pretty bad, an now my arm hurts and I can't seem to identify this worm. It was as thick as my finger and about four or five inches long.

By JimmyT — On Aug 28, 2012

It is so interesting how good some worms are and how bad others are. Having an intestinal worm is something I hope I never have to deal with. Besides being gross, I think they are difficult to deal with. Some of them actually attach themselves to your intestines and feed that way making them harder to kill.

Worms are always something I check my dog for too. I give him the preventative medicine for them, but you can't be too careful. Even though it can be gross, as well, I think it is always important to learn what your dog's normal stools look like so you can notice any differences.

By stl156 — On Aug 28, 2012

I love playing with inchworms. We have quite a few of them in the woods where we live. It is almost impossible to walk around for more than 10 minutes without finding one making its way across your shirt.

A lot of people think they are poisonous for some reason, but I don't know that any are. Some caterpillars are, but not any inchworms I've found. Like the article says, sometimes they will stand up on their back feet and wave around with the wind. That is always what entertains me the most.

By matthewc23 — On Aug 27, 2012

@TreeMan - I think I actually remember reading a story a long time ago about someone discovering the largest type of worm in Mexico somewhere. That could be the wrong location, though.

I know a lot of people who are put off by worms, but they are actually very good for gardens and the soil in general. Someone I knew always used to throw the worms out of her garden, because she didn't like them. Once I told her about how good they could be, though, she started leaving them in.

When earthworms dig, they leave little tunnels in the soil that allow air and water to flow through them to the roots of plants. I have even known some gardeners to buy lots of worms and put them in their flowerbeds.

By TreeMan — On Aug 26, 2012

I never considered how many different types of worms there are. I definitely never would have imagined that there was one that was 3 feet long. I assume that this is the largest one in the world? I don't have a particular problem with normal earthworms, but if I found one that was 3 feet long, I think I'd be a little disgusted.

It must be pretty easy to raise worms, because there are a couple of people who do it near where I live. They sell most of them for fishing. I think they also have worms for sale to people who want them for different types of pets.

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