Eubacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms. They are sometimes referred to as the “true bacteria,” differentiating them from Archaebacteria, similar organisms with some significant genetic and lifestyle differences. The vast majority of organisms we think of as “bacteria” are Eubacteria, with their Archean cousins preferring extreme living environments like nuclear power plants and hydrothermal vents.
In order to delve into the definition of Eubacteria, it is first necessary to discuss a detail of scientific classification. These bacteria are at the heart of a serious debate in scientific classification which is reshaping the traditional hierarchy of “Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.” Originally, Eubacteria were considered part of the Prokaryota kingdom, sometimes called “Monera,” along with their relatives the Archaebacteria.
Prokaryotic organisms like bacteria are primarily defined by their lack of cell nucleus. This makes them evolutionarily distinct from other living organisms, and has led to a number of innovative adaptations. Many prokaryotes are also single-celled, although this is not necessarily a requirement for membership in this kingdom. In addition to the Prokaryota kingdom, biologists also classified organisms into Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, and Protista.
In the 20th century, some people began to argue that Eubacteria and Archaebacteria should be considered two separate kingdoms, reflecting their considerable divergence. Therefore, some textbooks began to print a list of six kingdoms, rather than five. In 1990, the three-domain system was proposed, with researchers suggesting that a biological classification above “kingdom” needed to be created. In the three-domain system, organisms are classified as Eukaryota, Archaea (the new term for Archaebacteria), or Bacteria (the new title for Eubacteria).
Basically, the terms “Eubacteria” and “Bacteria” are interchangeable, since they both refer to a huge collection of organisms found everywhere on Earth, from the kitchen floor to mountain streams. However, some scientists prefer one term over the other, reflecting their position on scientific classification. The three-domain system is gaining considerable ground, so people may want to get used to calling “Eubacteria” by their new official title.
Bacteria are so diverse that it is extremely hard to make sweeping generalizations about this domain (or kingdom) of organisms, short of the statement that they are single-celled prokaryotic organisms. They come in a wide assortment of shapes, from neat rods to crazily twisted spirals, and they have a number of functions on Earth. Many people are familiar with bacteria in the form of organisms which cause disease, but bacteria are far more complex than that, and they are likely to endure on Earth long after other forms of life have vanished.
Is Eubacteria Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Despite having similar-looking names, eubacteria, also known as true bacteria, is not eukaryotic. Eubacteria is prokaryotic due to its nature as a bacteria with cells walls comprised of peptidoglycan. Eukaryotic cells are more complex, whereas eubacteria and other prokaryotic cells are simpler; there are no nuclei or organelles. The DNA is not located within the nucleus since one does not exist.
Where Is Eubacteria Found?
The better question might be, where can’t you find eubacteria? Eubacteria is all over everything everywhere. It is a single-celled bacteria found all over the Earth on land, in water, in the human body, in the air, in volcanoes, and amid nuclear wintering. It is truly everywhere. Eubacteria are known as one of the most populous living things on the planet and likely beyond, thanks to the ability to survive with and without oxygen.
When identified, eubacteria are found in either isolated single cells or groups of clusters. It is reported that the clusters appear as coils or grape bunches when observed scientifically. Certain eubacteria have been found to aid in the manufacturing of yogurts, cheeses, and curds but also at the induction of heinous diseases. Leprosy, cholera, syphilis, and tuberculosis are onset thanks to specific eubacteria production. Antibiotics may or may not help certain eubacteria infections.
What Is Kingdom Eubacteria?
It used to be that five kingdoms described all the organisms on Earth. However, with the discovery of eubacteria in the early ‘80s, the need to create another domain began to take shape. Previously, eubacteria fell under the kingdom of Monera. However, as more and more eubacteria were discovered, the differences became too great to ignore. At that time, the new kingdom of Eubacteria, or Eubacterium in Latin, was formed.
With every kingdom comes phyla for further specification. After Kingdom Eubacteria was formed, the corresponding phyla were formed to differentiate species.
Proteotic Bacteria Phyla
- Mostly anaerobic
- Moves by gliding or with the help of flagella
- Can be helpful but also can cause harmful diseases
- Contain chlorophyll pigments
- Found on land or in oceans
- No flagella
- Can make own food
- Moves in twisting motion
- Moves with the help of flagella
- Known to cause harmful diseases
What Do Eubacteria Look Like?
Eubacteria are often further categorized by shape. The kingdom identifies the larger group and the phyla determines whether or not a flagellum is present, while shape and structure also play a role in how eubacterium are identified.
Generally, all eubacteria have a cell wall that is rigid and irregular and made of sugar chains and amino acids. Any organelles are usually within the cell wall, though some membranes can be found on the outside. There is a membrane made from plasma on the inside, and if the phyla have flagella, it is connected there. The organelles inside include ribosomes and single-cell chromosomes surrounded by cytoplasm. Specific eubacterium cells can be shaped in one of three ways and may or may not be found in clusters.
Branch or Rod Shaped
- Bacillus: food poisoning
- Lactobacillus: “good” bacteria, sometimes known as probiotics
- Pseudomonas: p. aeruginosa infections, including bloodstream, pneumonia, urinary tract, and wounds
Spiral or Comma Shaped
- Treponema: syphilis
- Vibrio: known as vibriosis, food poisoning, or exposure of a wound to seawater
- Camphilovextor: known as campylobacter, food poisoning and water poisoning
Spherical, Oval, or Round Shaped
- Sarcina: gas-forming, gastric perforation, emphysematous gastritis
- Streptococcus: strep throat
- Micrococcus: peritonitis, bacteremia, endophthalmitis, endocarditis, ventriculitis, keratolysis, septic arthritis, and pneumonia
How Do Eubacteria Reproduce?
Eubacteria reproduce through binary fission. Binary fission is an asexual reproduction method that entails the separation of the mother and daughter cells in the cell wall. During conjugation, a hair-like protrusion called pili from the separated cells exchanges DNA. During the transformation process, they absorb DNA from the surrounding environment. Finally, the existing DNA is altered through transduction, in which bacteriophage is incorporated into the chromosome.
Because of their ability to reproduce asexually, eubacterium can replicate rapidly. It is said that under ideal conditions, more than five generations of eubacteria can be produced in less than 30 minutes.
What Are Common Characteristics of Eubacteria?
The multitude of shared characteristics led scientists to commit an entire kingdom to Eubacteria. Some of the most popular standard features of eubacteria include:
- Unicellular and prokaryotic
- Both heterotrophic and autotrophic
- Absorb atmospheric nitrogen and convert it for plants
- Synthesize vitamin K, potassium, in humans
- Survive in anaerobic or aerobic conditions
- Form endospores that can last millions of years
- Circular DNA and cytoplasm filled with plasmids
- Oft considered plants because of chlorophyll