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A properly set up ball python terrarium is important for the health and well being of a pet ball python. Size, temperature, humidity, and furnishings are all important considerations. Some safety considerations must also be kept in mind.
The optimal size for a ball python terrarium depends on the size of the snake, but adults may need 30 gallons (113.56 l) or more, and larger is better if the snake has enough places to hide. There are a few different options for substrate, or bedding, including newspaper, cypress mulch, and terrarium carpet. Cedar should never be used because it is toxic to snakes, and wood shavings may be inadvisable because the snake can swallow it.
Heating is an important consideration for a ball python terrarium, and the snake needs enough temperature variety to maintain its body temperature. Temperature recommendations vary somewhat, but generally the basking area of the terrarium should be around 90°F (32°C) and the rest of the tank should be in the high 70s°F or low-mid 80s°F (26°C to 29°C) during the day, and mid 70s°F (24°C) at night. There are a variety of heating solutions available to choose from, but hot rocks should not be used because they tend to have hot spots that can burn the snake.
Unlike other reptiles which require high humidity, ball pythons in the wild live in arid to moderate humidity. A ball python terrarium should be kept at around 50% humidity, which may need to be increased to 65% when the snake is shedding so that the skin sheds completely. Increasing the size of the water pool can help to increase the humidity, and misting the snake with water can help if there are shedding problems.
An acceptable ball python terrarium has at least one place to hide and one place to climb, and more should be added if the tank is large. Hide boxes should be big enough that the snake can fit completely inside, but not a great deal larger than the snake. A bowl of fresh clean water should be provided at all times, heavy enough that the snake cannot knock it over and large enough that the snake can partially soak its body in it.
It is very important that the ball python terrarium is kept secure at all times, because ball pythons are excellent at escaping. All lights need a screen so that the snake cannot touch the hot bulb and burn itself. All ball python owners, especially beginners, should not attempt to guess at the heat and humidity in the tank and should carefully monitor it using appropriate measuring devices.